Vijayanagara Empire

  1. Foundation: The Vijayanagara Empire was founded in 1336 by Harihara I and Bukka Raya I in the Deccan region of South India.
  2. Capital: The empire's capital was initially located at Hampi, also known as Vijayanagara, in present-day Karnataka.
  3. Geographic Extent: At its zenith, the Vijayanagara Empire covered most of the Deccan plateau, including parts of present-day Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu.
  4. Sangama Dynasty: The founding rulers belonged to the Sangama dynasty, which was followed by the Saluva and Tuluva dynasties.
  5. Krishnadevaraya: Krishnadevaraya, who reigned from 1509 to 1529, is often considered one of the greatest Vijayanagara kings.
  6. Religious Tolerance: The empire was known for its policy of religious tolerance, with Hinduism as the dominant religion but a significant presence of Muslims and Jains.
  7. Hampi Ruins: The city of Hampi, the empire's capital, is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is renowned for its well-preserved ruins.
  8. Virupaksha Temple: The Virupaksha Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, is one of the oldest functioning temples in India and a prominent religious center in Hampi.
  9. Achyutaraya Temple: The Achyutaraya Temple is another significant temple in Hampi, known for its impressive architecture and intricate carvings.
  10. Trade and Commerce: Vijayanagara was a major center for trade, with bustling markets for precious gems, spices, and other commodities.
  11. Bahmani Sultanate: The empire frequently clashed with the neighboring Bahmani Sultanate, leading to a series of wars and conflicts.
  12. Battle of Talikota: The Battle of Talikota in 1565 was a devastating defeat for Vijayanagara, resulting in the decline of the empire.
  13. Fall of Vijayanagara: After the Battle of Talikota, Hampi was sacked, and the empire disintegrated into smaller states.
  14. Aravidu Dynasty: A branch of the Vijayanagara royal family continued to rule parts of the empire under the Aravidu dynasty.
  15. Nayakas: Local chieftains known as Nayakas governed various regions that emerged from the disintegration of Vijayanagara.
  16. Art and Architecture: Vijayanagara architecture is characterized by grand temples, intricately carved pillars, and ornate gopurams (towered entrances).
  17. Literature and Culture: The empire made significant contributions to Telugu and Sanskrit literature, with notable scholars like Tenali Ramakrishna.
  18. Tungabhadra River: The Tungabhadra River, flowing near Hampi, provided essential water resources for the capital.
  19. Krishna River: The Krishna River played a significant role in the empire's agriculture and trade.
  20. Mysore Connection: The city of Mysore was initially a part of the Vijayanagara Empire before it became an independent kingdom.
  21. Temples of Belur and Halebidu: These Hoysala temples, located near Vijayanagara, are famous for their intricate sculptures and architecture.
  22. Vijayanagara Coins: The empire issued its coinage, often depicting images of deities and rulers.
  23. Artisans and Craftsmen: Skilled artisans and craftsmen in Vijayanagara created exquisite sculptures, jewelry, and textiles.
  24. Cultural Legacy: Despite its decline, the Vijayanagara Empire left a lasting cultural legacy in South India, influencing art, architecture, and traditions.
  25. Heritage and Tourism: The Vijayanagara ruins at Hampi and other sites attract tourists and scholars interested in India's rich history and architecture.

These points highlight the significance of the Vijayanagara Empire in the history of medieval India.



Short Text

A powerful South Indian empire centered around Hampi, known for its architectural wonders and conflicts with Deccan Sultanates